Since 1993, the decrease in juvenile crime has been three times greater th an the decrease in adult crime (Snyder, 2004). States continued to toughen their juvenile crime laws in recent years, making sentencing more punitive, expanding allowable transfers to criminal (adult) court, or doing away with some of the confidentiality safeguards of juvenile court. Young people are liable to overestimate their own understanding of a situation, underestimate the probability of negative outcomes, and make judgments based on incorrect or incomplete information (Quadrel et al., 1993). Children and adolescents from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds and those with low IQs fare worse in understanding the legal process and their rights than do other children and adolescents of comparable ages (Grisso, 1997). Prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and nicotine is associated with hyperactivity, attention deficit, and impulsiveness, which are risk factors for later antisocial behavior and delinquency. Replication studies of programs that have been found successful, such as treatment foster care or multisystemic therapy, is particularly important to advancing knowledge about what works and for whom. Some of the dissonance between the federal agenda and what was happening in the states at that time may have been caused by significant changes in legal procedures that made juvenile court processes more similar—though not identical—to those in criminal (adult) court. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Prevention and intervention efforts directed to individuals, peer groups, and families, as well as day care-, school- and community-based initiatives. The panel chose to provide a broad overview of juvenile crime and the juvenile justice system, touching on all the topics in its charge, but going into various levels of depth depending on the amount and quality of data available. The panel met six times between June 1998 and October 1999 to discuss data availability and research findings, identify critical issues, analyze the data and issues, seek additional information on specific concerns, formulate conclusions and recommendations, and develop this report. Those under age 15 often misunderstand the concept of a right, in general, and of Miranda rights, in particular. At 645 per 100,000, the U.S. incarceration rate is second only to that of Russia at 685 per 100,000 (Walmsley, 1999). juvenile crime rate remains high (Shepherd, 1999), reflecting an alarmist reaction to crime generally (Welch, Fenwick, & Roberts, 1997). During early adolescence, peers begin to take on increasing importance. Several members of the panel made site visits to juvenile detention and correctional facilities in Texas and New York. Incarceration also causes severe and long-term problems with future employment, leaving ex-offenders with few economic alternatives to crime. Research has shown that juveniles recover better and are safer and healthier when kept separate from adults, and so many nations have adopted laws that explicitly prohibit juveniles from living with adults in prison. (For details of needed research areas, see Chapter 3.). Ready to take your reading offline? Meanwhile, concern over delinquency in general, and violent delin-quents in particular, continues to grow while confidence in the juvenile justice network con-tinues to erode. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. The U.K. Crime and Disorder Act of 1998 moved the English juvenile justice system even further toward a punitive, offense-based model. Research has shown that treating most juvenile offenders within the community does not compromise public safety and may even improve it through reduced recidivism. Overcrowded conditions also increase the risk of injury to both staff and juveniles. Research on delinquency has traditionally focused on boys. Recommendation: Incentives should be established to encourage all police agencies to report data to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Although adults are also prone to the same misperceptions, children's and adolescents' lack of experience increases their vulnerability. In New Zealand, since 1989, Family Group Conferences have been used to replace or supplement youth courts for most of the serious criminal cases. Recommendation: Because of the inaccuracies inherent in long-range predictions of behavior, public policy should not be based on the assumption that any specific forecast will be true. 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