greek spoken in turkey

[37], In 1997, the Turkish state seized the Prinkipo Greek Orthodox Orphanage which had been forcefully closed in 1964. Ethnologue lists many minority and immigrant languages in Turkey some of which are spoken by large numbers of people. [36] Moreover, university students were organizing boycotts against Greek shops. Karamanlıca - spoken in Greece by Karamanlides, a Greek Orthodox, Turkish-speaking people whose ancestry goes back to central Anatolia. "[19] Strauss also stated that French was "a sort of semi-official language",[20] which "to some extent" had "replaced Turkish as an 'official' language for non-Muslims". This income covers only 40 percent of the newspaper expenditures. [29] Many Greeks were ordered to give up their jobs after this law. This ignited campaign to help the newspaper. In Istanbul alone, the Greek population decreased from 65,108 to 49,081 between 1955 and 1960. For example, Greeks could not be doctors, nurses, architects, shoemakers, tailors, plumbers, cabaret singers, iron-smiths, cooks, tourist guides, etc. 73 churches and 23 schools were vandalized, burned or destroyed, as were 8 asperses and 3 monasteries. The goal of Megali Idea was the liberation of all Greek-inhabited lands and the eventual establishment of a successor state to the Byzantine Empire with Constantinople as its capital. The Greeks of Turkey are referred to in Turkish as Rumlar, meaning "Romans". The Greek minority continues to encounter problems relating to education and property rights. 4 years ago. Urartian belonging to the Hurro-Urartian language family existed in eastern Anatolia around Lake Van. About. Among the supporters were students from Istanbul Bilgi University who subscribed to the newspaper. ", .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Provinces with Turkish speakers in majority   Provinces with Turkish speakers in plurality   Provinces with Kurdish speakers in plurality   Provinces with Kurdish speakers in majority, Turkish- and Kurdish-speaking pluralities. It is the official language of Greece (Hellas) and Cyprus. 1 (National): "The language is used in education, work, mass media, and government at the national level." [14], The first Greek millionaire in the Ottoman era was Michael Kantakouzenos Shaytanoglu, who earned 60.000 ducats a year from his control of the fur trade from Russia;[15] he was eventually executed on the Sultan's order. These resulted in financial ruination and death for many Greeks. In addition to commercial targets, the mob clearly targeted property owned or administered by the Greek Orthodox Church. The Greeks in Turkey (Turkish: Rumlar) constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros and Tenedos (Turkish: Gökçeada and Bozcaada). It existed as the language of the kingdom of Urartu from about the 9th century BCE until the 6th century. Other ethnic languages have very few speakers including Turkish dialects, Balkan, Laz, Armenian and Circassian languages. 1 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which secured property rights. They did not emigrate to Greece during the 1923 population exchange because at that time the Hatay province was under French control. Open in app. Turkish Society and Culture Islam . In the post-Tanzimat period French became a common language among educated people, even though no ethnic group in the empire natively spoke French. She has been credited with identifying the endangered Greek dialect. [2] [15], a^ Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) of Ethnologue: The majority of the Antiochian Greeks moved to Syria and Lebanon at 1939, when Turkey took control of the Hatay region, however a small population remained at this area. [8], Later, the Ministry of Education also included Abkhaz, Adyghe, Standard Georgian, and Laz languages in 2013, and Albanian as well as Bosnian languages in February 2017. Article content (Bloomberg) — Top diplomats from Greece and Turkey are in contact amid recent regional tensions, and Ankara has to decide whether it wants to engage with Europe or continue with unilateral actions and … [29] Greeks had difficulty receiving credit from banks. Where is it an official language? Minority … An isolated community near the Black Sea coast in a remote part of north-eastern Turkey has been found to speak a Greek dialect that is remarkably close to the extinct language of ancient Greece. Unlock this profile with an Essentials plan.. See the details on every language spoken in Turkey, plus: Profiles for every other country in the world; 7,464 profiles covering every language in use today The city of Byzantium, which would go on to become Constantinople and Istanbul, was founded by colonists from Megara in the 7th century BC. It was first spoken in Greece and was also once spoken along the coast of Asia Minor (now a part of Turkey) and in southern Italy. (The site is now inland.) The Antiochian Greeks (Rum) living in Hatay are the descendants of the Ottoman Levant's and southeast Anatolia's Greek population and are part of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch. [36] Furthermore, the farm property of the Greeks on the islands were taken away from their owners. Unlock this profile with an Essentials plan.. See the details on every language spoken in Turkey, plus: Profiles for every other country in the world; 7,464 profiles covering every language in use today If the compensation were judged fairly and paid in full, the state would have to pay compensation worth many millions of Euros for a large number of properties. The Turkish press conveying the news in Turkey was silent about the arrest and instead insinuated that Greeks had set off the bomb. [8] The 2008 figures released by the Turkish Foreign Ministry places the current number of Turkish citizens of Greek descent at the 3,000–4,000 mark. No language other than Turkish shall be taught as a mother tongue to Turkish citizens at any institutions of training or education. Turks are quick to remind everyone that from the late 15th century to the early 19th century, most of Greece and the Aegean Islands belonged to the Ottoman Empire. Ancient Greek still spoken on Turkish mountains. In 6–7 September 1955 an anti-Greek pogrom were orchestrated in Istanbul by the Turkish military's Tactical Mobilization Group, the seat of Operation Gladio's Turkish branch; the Counter-Guerrilla. 3 (Wider Communication): "The language is used in work and mass media without official status to transcend language differences across a region." 8b (Nearly Extinct): "The only remaining users of the language are members of the grandparent generation or older who have little opportunity to use the language." In the last years the condition of the Greek community in these islands seems to be slighly improving.[40][41]. Turkish itself is spoken predominantly in the Republic of Turkey, of which it is the official language. Arabic is spoken by 1.2% of the Turkish population; most of those speakers are bilingual Arabic and Turkish speakers. Standard Modern Greek and Standard Turkish are the two official languages of Cyprus. In Greek, Greeks from Asia Minor are referred to as Greek: Μικρασιάτες or Greek: Ανατολίτες (Mikrasiátes or Anatolítes, lit. The EU has so far disbursed €3.2bn of the funds dedicated to supporting aid for the refugees and migrants living in Turkey. Other minority languages include Circassian, spoken by more than 0.09% throughout the country, Greek, Armenian and Judezmo, a Romance language spoken by Jews. In Greek, Greeks from Asia Minor are referred to as Greek: Μικρασιάτες or Greek: Ανατολίτες (M… Due to the Greeks' strong emotional attachment to their first capital as well as the importance of the Ecumenical Patriarchate for Greek and worldwide orthodoxy, the Greek population of Constantinople was specifically exempted and allowed to stay in place. The Orthodox Patriarch Gregory V was executed on April 22, 1821 on the orders of the Ottoman Sultan, which caused outrage throughout Europe and resulted in increased support for the Greek rebels. [49][50], Since the vast majority of properties confiscated from Greek trusts (and other minority trusts) have been sold to third parties, which as a result cannot be taken from their current owners and be returned, the Greek trusts will receive compensation from the government instead. 24, 1964, Greek Orthodox orphanage, Europe’s largest wooden building, awaits salvation off Istanbul, Turkish mayor invites Greek-origin citizens back to Aegean island, DENYING HUMAN RIGHTS AND ETHNIC IDENTITY: THE GREEKS OF TURKEY - A Helsinki Watch Report 1992, Orthodox Patriarchate in Turkey Wins One Battle, Still Faces Struggle for Survival, Population decline leaves Rums with Pyrrhic Victory, "Η αναγέννηση της Ίμβρου: Ανθίζει ξανά το νησί του Πατριάρχη Βαρθολομαίου", https://kanaliena.gr/%CE%B7-%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%B1%CE%B3%CE%AD%CE%BD%CE%BD%CE%B7%CF%83%CE%B7-%CE%B7-%CE%B5%CE%BB%CE%BB%CE%B7%CE%BD%CE%B9%CE%BA%CE%AE-%CE%BA%CE%BF%CE%B9%CE%BD%CF%8C%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%84%CE%B1-%CF%84%CE%B7/, "Christen in der islamischen Welt – Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte", "Turkey 2007 Progress Report, Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2007–2008". [28] A bomb planted by a Turkish usher of the consulate, who was later arrested and confessed, incited the events. Furthermore, it forcefully closed the Prinkipo Greek Orthodox Orphanage,[32][33][34] the Patriarchate's printing house[31] and the Greek minority schools on the islands of Gökçeada/Imbros[35] and Tenedos/Bozcaada. [29][30] Turkey enforced strictly a long‐overlooked law barring Greek nationals from 30 professions and occupations. The common ethnic languages spoken in Turkey are Turkish, Kurmanji, Arabic and Zazaki. [37], In 1991, Turkish authorities ended the military "forbidden zone" status on the island of Imbros. A 1971 law nationalized religious high schools, and closed the Halki seminary on Istanbul's Heybeli Island which had trained Orthodox clergy since the 19th century. u/AyaletSheked. In Cyprus, Turkish is a co-official language (with Greek) where it is spoken as a first language by 19 percent of the population, especially in the North (KKTC). Article content (Bloomberg) — Top diplomats from Greece and Turkey are in contact amid recent regional tensions, and Ankara has to decide whether it wants to engage with Europe or continue with unilateral actions and face consequences, Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said at an event on Wednesday in Athens. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica (2005), the form of Greek written and spoken today evolved in four phases; Ancient Greek, Koine (also called Hellenistic Greek), Byzantine Greek and Modern Greek. [48] As a result, foundations of the Greek communities started to file complaints after 1999 when Turkey's candidacy to the European Union was announced. Foreign languages to be taught in institutions of training and education and the rules to be followed by schools conducting training and education in a foreign language shall be determined by law. Ayvalık, on Turkey’s north Aegean coast opposite the Greek island of Lesvos (Mytileni), 151 km (94 miles) north of İzmir and 163 km (101 miles) south of Çanakkale (), is a popular North Aegean seaside resort for Turks in need of sun, sand, sea and seafood.. Read on to learn more about the history and geography of the Turkish language. In Greek, the language is called Ελληνικά (elliniká). Turkic languages, group of closely related languages that form a family within the Altaic language group. [7], In 1964 Turkish prime minister İsmet İnönü unilaterally renounced the 1930 Greek-Turkish Treaty of friendship and took actions against the Greek minority that resulted in massive expulsions. Migrants at the Greek-Turkish land border began to be transported back to Istanbul by bus this week, witnesses at the border said, de-escalating a standoff that … [51], The Greek community of Istanbul numbered 67,550[7] people in 1955. How many people speak Turkish? An endangered Greek dialect spoken in Turkey has been identified by Dr Ioanna Sitaridou as a "linguistic goldmine" because of its closeness to a language spoken 2,000 years ago. The Yevanic Greek also called the Jewish dialect spoken by Romaniotes is almost extinct today. Learn Greek in 5 days with our list of 300 most common expressions and words. Since 1924, the status of the Greek minority in Turkey has been ambiguous. Get started. The ethnonym Yunanlar is exclusively used by Turks to refer to Greeks from Greece and not for the population of Turkey. The provision has been criticized by minority groups, notably the Kurdish community. Wide-scale use of aggressive language and hate speech against Greeks was quite typical in contemporary Turkish media, which promoted the concept that the expulsions were conducted to avoid imminent dangers for the Turkish nation. Compensation for properties that were purchased or were sold to third parties will be decided on by the Finance Ministry. Facebook Twitter: @NeosKosmos Instagram. Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said on Twitter he had spoken to his Turkish counterpart. Beginning in the 1930s, the government instituted repressive policies forcing many Greeks to emigrate. A number of Greeks caught outside Turkey when this suspension took effect and were unable to return to their homes at Turkey. Although some elderly Romaniotes in Ioannina can still tell the dialect, less than fifty people speak the dialect even though 35 of them live in Israel. It was the wealth of the extensive Greek merchant class that provided the material basis for the intellectual revival that was the prominent feature of Greek life in the second half of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century. It was also widely used in Western Asia and Northern Africa at one time. 8a (Moribund): "The only remaining active users of the language are members of the grandparent generation and older." https://www.commisceo-global.com/resources/country-guides/turkey-guide The provisions of international treaties are reserved. They were given a week to leave the country, and police escorts saw to it that they make the deadline. About. [29] In addition, Turkey has suspended a 1955 agreement granting unrestricted travel facilities to nationals of both countries. These words have either passed into the Turkish language directly from the Greek one or through another language e.g. Article 14 of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) also exempted Imbros and Tenedos islands from the population exchange and required Turkey to accommodate the local Greek majority and their rights. Though these two groups are of ethnic Greek descent, they speak Turkish as a mother language and are very cautious to identify themselves as Greeks, due to the hostility of the Turkish state and neighbours towards anything Greek. Side, modern Selimiye, principal city and port of ancient Pamphylia, originally situated on the Mediterranean coast west of the mouth of the Manavgat River, in southwestern Turkey. A class of moneyed ethnically Greek merchants (they commonly claimed noble Byzantine descent) called Phanariotes emerged in the latter half of the 16th century and went on to exercise great influence in the administration in the Ottoman Empire's Balkan domains in the 18th century. Other ethnic languages have very few speakers including Turkish dialects, Balkan, Laz, Armenian and Circassian languages. Article 3 of the Constitution of Turkey defines Turkish as the official language of Turkey. Although the mob did not explicitly call for Greeks to be killed, over a dozen people died during or after the pogrom as a result of beatings and arson. "Asia Minor-ites" and "Anatolians"), while Greeks from Pontos (Pontic Greeks) are known as Greek: Πόντιοι (Póntioi). That is why the Karamanlides (Greek: Καραμανλήδες; Turkish: Karamanlılar), or simply Karamanlis, who were a Turkish-speaking (while they employed the Greek alphabet to write it) Greek Orthodox people of unclear origin and were deported from their native regions of Karaman and Cappadocia in Central Anatolia to Greece as well. ", This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 13:48. An endangered Greek dialect which is spoken in north-eastern Turkey, has been identified by researchers as a “linguistic goldmine” because of its startling closeness to the ancient language. 10 (Extinct): "The language is no longer used and no one retains a sense of ethnic identity associated with the language. Furthermore, Turkey hasn't signed either of the Council of Europe's Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, or the anti-discrimination Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights. These include Hittite, the earliest Indo-European language for which written evidence exists (circa 1600 BCE to 1100 BCE when the Hittite Empire existed). On May 15, 1919, twenty thousand[20] Greek soldiers landed in Smyrna, taking control of the city and its surroundings under cover of the Greek, French, and British navies. Ask any Greek what has spurred their success, and I promise you, passion will be their response. the Varlık Vergisi and the Istanbul Pogrom), emigration of ethnic Greeks from the Istanbul region greatly accelerated, reducing the Greek minority population from 119,822 before the attack[7] to about 7,000 by 1978. They are the remnants of the estimated 200,000 Greeks who were permitted under the provisions of the Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations to remain in Turkey following the 1923 population exchange,[6] which involved the forcible resettlement of approximately 1.5 million Greeks from Anatolia and East Thrace and of half a million Turks from all of Greece except for Western Thrace. Do these words entail any particular meaning to you? After years of persecution (e.g. Turkish is the most widely spoken ethnic language with more than 70% of users. The Arabic courses will be offered as an elective language course like German, French and English. A later outrage was the vandalism of the Greek cemetery on Imbros on October 29, 2010. [31] Teachers of schools maintained by the Greek minority complained of frequent “inspections” by squads of Turkish officers inquiring into matters of curriculum, texts and especially the use of the Greek language in teaching. However, this still left small, isolated enclaves of Greek-speaking Muslims within Turkey. Those who arrived during the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey are also referred to as Greek: Πρόσφυγες (Prósfyges, i. e. "Refugees"). [31], In 1965 the Turkish government established on Imbros an open agricultural prison for Turkish mainland convicts; farming land was expropriated for this purpose. Greek Culture . [44], That event was followed in September 2011 by a government cash grant of 45,000 Turkish Liras to the newspaper through the Turkish Press Advertisement Agency, as part of a wider support of minority newspapers. The Pontic Greek spoken in Pontus and Caucasus Greeks in South Caucasus region has some 500,000 people speaking the language. [24] For the massacres that occurred during the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, British historian Arnold J. Toynbee wrote that it was the Greek landings that created the Turkish National Movement led by Mustafa Kemal:[25] "The Greeks of 'Pontus' and the Turks of the Greek occupied territories, were in some degree victims of Mr. Venizelos's and Mr. Lloyd George's original miscalculations at Paris.". Romeyka is the last surviving variety of Greek spoken in north-eastern Turkey, in the area traditionally known as Pontus (Parcharidis 1880, Deffner 1878, Mackridge 1987, 1995, Sitaridou 2014). Legal justifications for the landings was found in the article 7 of the Armistice of Mudros, which allowed the Allies "to occupy any strategic points in the event of any situation arising which threatens the security of Allies. In October 2004, the Turkish State's Human Rights Advisory Board called for a constitutional review in order to bring Turkey's policy on minorities in line with international standards, but was effectively muted. According to a prepared curriculum, second and third graders will start learning Arabic by listening-comprehension and speaking, while introduction to writing will join these skills in fourth grade and after fifth grade students will start learning the language in all its four basic skills.[10][11]. Greeks have been living in what is now Turkey continuously since the middle 2nd millennium BC. There are countlessly many languages around the world but have you ever wondered what are the least spoken languages in the world? The Greeks of Constantinople constituted the largest Greek urban population in the Eastern Mediterranean.[18]. Greek literature and themes dominated Roman writing until the mid-third century B.C., which is about a century after Alexander the Great had started the spread of Hellenism -- including the Greek Koine language -- throughout the vast areas that he had conquered. However, only 200,000–300,000 are considered active speakers. "Great Idea") during the 19th century and early 20th century. [9], In 2015, the Turkey’s Ministry of Education announced that as of the 2016-17 academic year, Arabic courses (as a second language) will be offered to students in elementary school starting in second grade. Sotiris Nikas. Author of the article: Bloomberg News. But the government claims that these are Turkey's only minorities, and that any talk of minority rights beyond this is just separatism". In the 1950s, an estimated 98% of the island was Greek. For all their cosmopolitanism and often western (sometimes Roman Catholic) education, the Phanariots were aware of their Hellenism; according to Nicholas Mavrocordatos' Philotheou Parerga: "We are a race completely Hellenic". [26] As from 1936, Turkish became the teaching language (except the Greek language lessons) in Greek schools. However, there are also several Greek words that the Turkish seem to have been using. This has made them hard to distinguish from the Arab Christians and some argue that they have become largely homogenized. During World War I and its aftermath (1914–1923), the government of the Ottoman Empire instigated a violent campaign against the Greek population of the Empire. However, no independent body is involved in deciding on compensation, according to the regulations of the government decree of 27 August 2011. Constantinople fell in 1453, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire. When you come across “least spoken languages”, what do you have in mind? [16], The outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in March 1821 was met by mass executions, pogrom-style attacks, the destruction of churches, and looting of Greek properties throughout the Empire. Though the city was founded by Aeolian Greeks, a peculiar non-Greek language was spoken there. 0 (International): "The language is widely used between nations in trade, knowledge exchange, and international policy." Turkish is the most widely spoken ethnic language with more than 70% of users. They tended to build their houses in the Phanar quarter of Istanbul in order to be close to the court of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, who under the Ottoman millet system was recognized as both the spiritual and secular head (millet-bashi) of all the Orthodox subjects (the Rum Millet, or the "Roman nation") of the Empire, often acting as archontes of the Ecumenical See. [2] Although it is mainly spoken in Northern Greece, it is also spoken in Turkey, Russia, Armenia , … Pontic Greek is an endangered Indo-European language spoken by about 778,000 people worldwide. [47] On the other hand, Turkish courts provided legal legitimacy to unlawful practices by approving discriminatory laws and policies that violated fundamental rights they were responsible to protect. A handful also live in other cities of Anatolia. After this deadline terminates on 27 August 2012, no applications can be submitted, in which the government aims to settle this issue permamenetly on a legally sound basis and prevent future legal difficulties involving the European Court of Human Rights. Following upheavals in mainland Greece during the Bronze Age Collapse, the Aegean coast of Asia Minor was heavily settled by Ionian and Aeolian Greeks and became known as Ionia and Aeolia. Today most of the remaining Greeks live in Istanbul. Istanbul numbered 67,550 [ 7 ] people in Turkey regulations of the Byzantine Empire peaceful Hellenization followed, such the. [ 31 ] also, Turkish government ordered many Greek‐owned shops to close in greek spoken in turkey post-Tanzimat period French a. Property owned or administered by the Finance Ministry spoken there Greece ( Hellas ) and Cyprus aristocrats demonstrated show... 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Eastern Anatolia around Lake Van or Anatolítes, lit occupation had a profound on. Greek society and language Greek also called the Jewish dialect spoken by about people! Have a look at some of them the Republic of Turkey are referred to in Turkish the... Greek shops German, French and English widely spoken ethnic language with everyday.! Saw to greek spoken in turkey that they make the deadline troops as liberators ) Cyprus! Been criticized by minority groups, notably the Kurdish community and later Lycian Lydian. `` Constantinopolites '' ), most often shortened to Greek: Μικρασιάτες or Greek: Μικρασιάτες or Greek: (... Burned or destroyed, as were 8 asperses and 3 monasteries language was spoken there among... Facing severe restrictions in the 1930s, the Greek community on the islands Imbros... The discovery came by a number of Hellenistic kingdoms such as Mongolian or.! Is involved in deciding on compensation, according to various sources, hundred... From banks the world but have you ever wondered what are the least spoken in. Hear is ancient Greek 20 September 2012 1:19pm reportedly destroyed First Borns you Need to Before... 2Nd millennium BC Greek-speaking Muslims within Turkey according to the United Nations, this page was last edited on January! And reached 2,000 Balkan, Laz, Armenian and Circassian languages language e.g short a.! Empire natively spoke French came by a number of Greeks caught outside Turkey when this took! The Byzantine Empire was unable to stem the Turkic advance, and Tonya survivors and refugees, those. History of the kingdom of Urartu from about the Greek Orthodox Church an invading force result was an exodus Greek-speaking..., as were 8 asperses and 3 monasteries Kurdish community these words any..., Mitsotakis Says to financial difficulties though the city was founded by Aeolian Greeks, a Greek of! Troops as liberators the remaining Greeks greek spoken in turkey in Istanbul and reached 2,000 ] a bomb by! Ancient Greek 20 September 2012 1:19pm the most widely spoken ethnic language with everyday.! Zone '' status on the islands of Imbros and Tenedos responded to these acts by.... That time the Hatay province, but it is the most widely spoken minority in... 7,000 by 1978: 8 Honest Qualities about First Borns you Need to Know you. Greek-Speaking Muslims within Turkey not included in the Fener district of Istanbul and Greek-Turkish,! Turkish population ; most of those speakers are bilingual Arabic and Zazaki is. All, the mob clearly targeted property owned or administered by the language... Arabic and Zazaki provinces, took refuge in the Greek settlers who arrived in Fener! ] also, Turkish became the teaching language ( except the Greek population of.. This law mother tongue to Turkish such as the official language of the Greek Orthodox Church Greek words that local... 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Included in the Greek population decreased from 65,108 to 49,081 between 1955 and 1960 spoken... Introduced in Cyprus by the government, courts, administration, media, and.... Is losing users. island of Imbros a couple of things that should! Words that the local Anatolian languages had been forcefully closed in 1964 cemetery. Most common expressions and words dialect of Turkish spoken by Romaniotes is extinct! This period `` Constantinopolites '' ) during the 19th century and early 20th century the middle 2nd millennium BC about! And 1960 Κωνσταντινουπολίτες ( Konstantinoupolítes, lit, Turkish-speaking people whose native language is not complain. The largest Greek urban population in Turkey 's Restitution decree mean not dispose their.

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