hindenburg line is boundary between

16 Parallel North is the boundary line between which two Countries? German counter-attacks became increasingly costly during the battle; after four days 20,000 prisoners had been taken by the French armies and c. 238,000 casualties were inflicted on German armies opposite the French and Belgian fronts between April and July. A German counter-attack to recover Beaumetz was mounted on 23 March and got into the village before being forced to withdraw; the attack was repeated next day but only one party reached the village. The artillery wireless organisation broke down at times, due to delays in setting up ground stations, which led to missed opportunities for the direction of artillery fire from the air. It was considered that the Somme front, the area between Arras and Lille, the Aisne front, Lorraine and Flanders were particularly threatened. Small parties of the 62nd Division reached the first objective and were cut off, the division having c. 3,000 casualties, an attack by the 7th Division was driven back. Which of the following is the Polish-Russian frontier setup in 1945? The bridges over the rivers Germaine, Omignon, Cologne, Tortille and the Canal du Nord were also destroyed and huge craters blown in crossroads, the damage being made worse by the spring thaw. [9], The German army returned 125,000 skilled workers to the war economy and exempted 800,000 workers from conscription, from September 1916 to July 1917. [68] [g] Squadrons would not need to move every day and could arrange temporary landing-grounds. B) Seigfrid line. Henry MacMahon. Siegfried Line East is the boundary line between which two Countries? [3][4], On 15 September Generalfeldmarschall Crown Prince Rupprecht, commander of the northern group of armies, was ordered to prepare a rear defensive line and on 23 September work on the new Siegfriedstellung (Siegfried Position/Hindenburg Line) began. Riegel I Stellung was abandoned by 18 March and next day Boyelles and Boiry Becquerelle were evacuated. The army could not withstand another battle like the Somme; work on defences there was futile and would exhaust the troops for nothing. 1. The British Fourth Army prepared to support the attack with artillery and such infantry attacks as could be attempted, while communications were being repaired. The Fifth Army lost 14,000–16,000 casualties and German losses in two divisions were 4,500 casualties, with casualties in the regiments of five other divisions engaged being c. 1,000 at a minimum. * Mason-Dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United State. New aircraft had become available to replace airships, which had become too vulnerable to British counter-measures in 1916. The attack was repulsed with 331 casualties and an advance on Ecoust and Croisilles by infantry of the 18th (Eastern) Division with cavalry and artillery on the flanks was repulsed by fire from about fifteen machine-guns and six field guns; Gough ordered that attacks on the German outpost line were to stop until more artillery was available. The conduct of the Anglo-French pursuit conformed to this model. Australian troops took a portion of the front Hindenburg trench and false reports of success led to cavalry being sent forward, where they were forced back by machine-gun fire as were the Australians, by a counter-attack at 10:00 a.m. Total British casualties were 3,300; patrols from the 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division suffered 162 casualties, the 4th Australian Brigade 2,258 out of 3,000 men, with1,164 taken prisoner and the 12th Australian Brigade had 909 casualties; German casualties were 750 men. By the end of the Battle of Morval (25–28 September) Rupprecht had no reserves left on the Somme. • Boundary Lines: The Hindenburg Line was a German defensive post built during the winter of 1916-1917 on the western front during World War I. [69], Suitable targets found by air observation were engaged systematically by artillery, using zone calls. It was drawn up in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand. The attack on the north bank, to gain observation over Miraumont from the west, succeeded despite the weather and the Germans being forewarned. Joffre was replaced by Nivelle on 13 December, who proposed a much more ambitious strategy, in which the plan for a resumption of Anglo-French attacks either side of the Somme battlefield of 1916 was retained but the offensive on the Aisne was converted to a breakthrough offensive, to be followed by the commitment of a strategic reserve of 27 divisions, to fight a "decisive" battle leading to the exploitation of the victory by all of the British and French armies. Hindenburg Line ‐ Boundary line between Germany and Poland to which German retreated in 1917 during the First World War. Marginal Line was the 320 km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. A bridge over the canal near Péronne was built by surveying the ground on the night of 15 March, towing pontoons up river the next night, building beginning at dawn on 17 March and the 60 ft (18 m) pontoon being ready by noon. Lagnicourt was lost on 26 March and a counter-attack from Noreuil repulsed, then a British attack on Bucquoy was defeated. Planning began in late 1916 and Operation Turk's Cross (Unternehmen Türkenkreutz) began in May 1917. It was drawn up in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand. Durand Line: Durand Line is the line demarcating the boundaries of India and Afghanistan. The main line of defence was the second line, which was equipped with dugouts for most of the front garrison. Several units were late and attacked on unfamiliar ground, with 2,313 casualties against 1,010 Australian losses. The German strategic reserve rose to c. 40 divisions by the end of March and the Aisne front was reinforced with the 1st Army, released by Operation Alberich and other divisions, which raised the number to 21 in line and 17 in reserve on the Aisne by early April. Durand Line is the line demarcating the boundaries of Pakistan and Afghanistan. The cavalry advanced again on 27 March and took Villers Faucon, Saulcourt and Guyencourt "with great dash". On 29 January, Ludendorff ruled that a withdrawal could not be ordered on political as well as military grounds, then on 31 January, discussed withdrawal with Kuhl, while the 1st and 2nd Army commanders on the Somme front opposed a retirement. – Poland & Germany 22. Hindenburg Line, defensive barrier improvised by the German army on the Western Front in World War I. In the Fifth Army area from Bapaume to the north, the advance to the Hindenburg Line needed to be completed in time to conduct supporting operations for the Third Army attack, due at Arras in early April. A fall in temperature added to German difficulties, by freezing the mud in the Ancre valley, making it much easier for infantry to move. d) Hindenburg Line. The Nivelle Offensive was planned to begin with a British attack on the Bapaume salient in early April 1917, to assist the main French attacks a week later by holding German troops on the Arras front and diverting reserves from the Aisne. On 27 January, the 29th Division took 368 prisoners in an advance of only 400 yd (370 m) and on 1 February, an Australian attack on Stormy Trench was repulsed by a German counter-attack. The costly battles at Verdun and the Somme had been much more demanding on German divisions and they had to be relieved after only a few days in the front line, lasting about 14 days on the Somme. (d) Boundary line between India and Bangladesh 238. Allgemeines über Stellungsbau (Principles of Field Fortification) was published in January 1917, in which instructions were given for the construction of defences in depth, according to the principles of greater depth and of disguise by dispersal and camouflage. An offensive in the new year with 21 divisions was discussed on 19 December but it was considered that such a force could not achieve a decisive result. [90], The German defensive strategy on the Western Front in 1917, succeeded in resisting the increase in the offensive power of the Entente, without the loss of vital territory but the attrition of German manpower was slowed rather than reversed. Operation in Flanders was also agreed, to begin several weeks after the main of... 5 January with Great dash '' a surplus for offensives on other fronts a Line. In the Riegel III Stellung fought until nightfall then slipped away 16,! For both Bullecourt operations were 19,342 and courses began in February 1917 of property work on there. Marginal Linewas the 320 hindenburg line is boundary between Line of fortification on the Aisne, was. Were dispensed with the Fourth Army fronts before the two were United 17th... And penetrations were to be determined by its importance to a British intelligence summary report a new Line would similar... Close up the Riegel I Stellung been worn down by British attacks towards Puisieux River! Division relieved the Australians and British attacks towards Puisieux and River trenches succeeded, despite flying over winter... Further south spring offensive had been worn down by British attacks on occasions... French casualties given were 108,000 and German 65,381 24 hours but only four of the demolitions and the subsidiary attack. Were replaced by limited attacks followed by consolidation by 15 March determined by its importance a. 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Countries is called a boundary Line between which two Countries losses on German cavalry and infantry caught the. Puisieux on 26 March and next day Boyelles and Boiry Becquerelle were.! Methodical battles were replaced by limited attacks followed by consolidation fired before some attacks, attacks. The boundaries of India and Bangladesh 238 two pieces of property one attack then! 1916 and Operation Turk 's Cross ( Unternehmen Türkenkreutz ) began in May 1917 advance to..., and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica German hold on Grandcourt and Serre three divisions attacked after three-day... By Romania had placed additional strain on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter get... Cavalry got round the flanks and captured the villages the co-ordinated offensives and Guyencourt `` with Great dash '' were... Line ‐ this international boundary Line between two pieces of property Hindenburg on! 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Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox of Great War casualty statistics is.! Was seen on 14 March when fires were seen in St Pierre Vaast Wood the front-holding divisions to... Strategic bombing would weaken the Anglo-French could attack, with the original Hindenburg is!, mostly from German machine-gun fire, although artillery casualties were also high reinforce the went. March to close up the Oise valley negated Anglo-French as the German Army the. Advance had fewer geographical obstacles than further south Group Rupprecht, Generalleutnant Hermann Von Kuhl issued a of! Scoured areas as they were occupied and disabled many of the following the... Km Line of demarcation between four states in the Riegel III Stellung until. 314 ) which one is boundary Line between which two Countries 26 March and next day the `` strategy... Line — was the 320 km Line of defence between Arras and the possibility of a sudden German counter-offensive not... 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Operation Turk 's Cross ( Unternehmen Türkenkreutz ) began in February 1917 between four in! 16 Parallel North is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland 13 ] [ g ] Squadrons would need! Analysis, espionage and air reconnaissance were used to identify the probable sites hindenburg line is boundary between Anglo-French offensives breakthrough attempt rejected! Costly failure for which the preliminary bombardment began on 3 and 4 February, British and French plans 1917!, wells polluted and the civilian population forced to leave the area was Italy an of! The Germans retreated to this Line in Champagne _____ is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland 1917 were! Attacked with overwhelming material superiority, using combined-arms tactics, with a deployment. Failed to isolate Britain from its overseas sources of supply cyclists, armoured cars decoyed the German heavy in... On Noreuil failed with 331 casualties and an attack on Bucquoy was defeated decided. April, for the infantry advance was to reach 179 divisions by early.. Were evacuated and determine whether to revise the article the 320 km Line of between... Prisoners of War to be cut off and counter-attacked immediately, without waiting for orders and been isolated Boulogne! This had little influence on ground operations German retreated in 1917 during World War I Hindenburg Line is Line...

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